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E-business is becoming the most effective way to get clients for Chinese Factory


In these years, most Chinese factorys begin to use E-business to show their products and let the all world to know their company or factory. Compare with tradtional way such as calling,sending out Ads paper, Fair, E-business create more business more chance for Chinese Factory.  Like Zhejiang Kaixin Industrial & Trade Co.,Ltd, will ad their garden furniture and Factory information on some B2B/B2C website .

What is E-business

e-business is Electronic and electronic technology as a means to business as the core, the original traditional sales, shopping channels, to move onto the Internet, to break the national and regional visible and invisible barriers to globalization of production enterprises, network, intangible and personal And integration. E-business is the use of digital information technology, the activities of the enterprise continuous optimization process. Covering e-business A wide range, and can be divided into business to business (Business-to-Business), or business to consumer (Business-to-Consumer) two. There are also consumer to consumer (Consumer-to-Consumer) pattern of growth in this step. With the increase in the number of domestic Internet use, the use of Internet for online shopping and bank card payments gradually popular consumption patterns, market share is growing rapidly, e-business sites are endless. The most common e-business security has SSL (Secure Socket Layer) and SET (Secure Electronic Transaction) two. With the development of network technology, network-based electronic money as payment and settlement tool at an unprecedented pace, With the development of computer technology and electronic payment instruments related to electronic commerce more and more. The payment instruments can be divided into three categories: one category is electronic money, such as electronic cash, electronic wallets; the other is the electronic credit card categories, including smart cards, debit cards, phone cards, etc.; there is a class type of electronic check Such as electronic check, electronic funds transfer (EFT), electronic transfer money, etc. First, the basic concept of electronic money and the main form.1, the basic concept of electronic money.,The latest electronic money as a contemporary form of currency, from the 20th century, since the 70’s generation, the application form and more extensive. Electronic money is an online e-credit developed to commercial electronic machines and all kinds of trading cards for the media to computer technology and modern communications technology as a means of electronic funds transfer and storage pulse of credit currency. Conducted through Internet banking financial electronic information exchange, electronic money and notes and other currency, compared with a save low cost, low-cost distribution, standardization, low cost and low cost. Small amount, especially suitable for online purchases. Electronic currency technology to solve the intangible currency of storage, circulation and use of technical problems, has great potential for development. Mark Twain Bank of America is the first U.S. bank to provide e-money business, as early as April 1996 to get the ten thousand e-money clients. second : main forms of electronic money. There are two main forms of electronic money: a smart card form of payment cards and currency documents digitally. The former is mainly used for payments under the net, which is used for online payments. Electronic cash, its main purpose is to replace the daily consumption of small notes and coins. Mondex card with cash in addition to other features, but also has a feature better than cash, that is it safely through electronic channels (such as telephone, Internet, etc.) as the person to person, person to business, people on the banks Distance transfer value. E-business is just beginning in China, online financial services carried out less, the construction of electronic money system has been slow. Mondex is the closest to cash, electronic currency. E – Cash Digicash developed by the number of online transactions in the currency. It is a form of currency in circulation data. The cash value converted into a series of encrypted serial number, serial number through which to express the amount of the currency of various reality. The user to carry out electronic business, open bank accounts in cash and money in the account of memory, you can accept electronic cash in the stores shopping. In this environment, our expertise more and more on e-business, summarized the main, There are two majors: the direction of web design and procedures, network marketing, editorial direction. Professional e-business requirements in the different universities in different courses, some institutions focus on e-business network technology, computer technology, some institutions will focus on the business model above course, which is mainly reflected in the profession where Departments, some in the Administration, and some will be in the Information Science and Technology, and some will be in Software Engineering. That students trained in the various institutions will also have expertise in a certain difference. Main courses: Principles of Computer Networks, Electronic Commerce, Internet marketing foundation and practice of e-business and international trade, e-letter writing, writing practice e-marketing, marketing planning, web Color, web design, data structure, Java language, Web standards and Web Standards, FlashAction Script animation design, UI design, e-business site building, e-business management practices, ERP and customer relationship management, e-business logistics management, e-business professional English, news gathering, writing and editing the basic skills. After graduation students may be engaged in the enterprises and institutions website web design, site construction and maintenance, or network editing, website maintenance and web marketing content (including international trade), business goods and services marketing planning and other professional work, or in customer Relationship management, e-business project management, planning and operation of e-business, e-business systems development and maintenance work and commerce at all levels of teaching and school work. College students can also engage in telemarketing call center work. Although e-business transaction model can not predict when it will become the mainstream model, but e-business market potential is infinite, because: on the one hand, the development of potential consumers at an alarming rate. According to UNCTAD, “E-business Development Report 2002” shows that the end of 2002, the global Internet users reached 650 million of the public. In China, according to China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) reported the latest survey, as of the end of June 2003, has reached 68 million Internet users, 48.5% over last year, while the October 1997 survey found that only 62 of the first million, an increase of a few years 109.7 times. Part of them is e-business consumers, and more is the rapid development of the market potential consumers. On the other hand, rapid growth of e-business transactions. According to well-known international consulting firm Forrester estimates that in 2002 global e-business transaction volume of about 2.2935 trillion U.S. dollars by 2006 could reach 12.8 trillion U.S. dollars, accounting for 18% of global retail sales, the average annual growth rate of above 30% . The United States is the most developed e-business applications one of the countries, the development trends of other countries has an important leading role. In 2001, although the U.S. e-business transactions in the proportion of retail sales in the U.S. is still less than 3%, but similar software, travel and music products, these goods and services B2C online transactions have been accounted for this part of some 18% of turnover about other parts of the world had a similar situation. According to UNCTAD, “E-business Development Report 2001,” the consulting firm Anderson cited data show that the end of 2003, China’s B2B and B2C e-business market transactions will total may reach $ 4,000,000,000 of the giant, B2B, the average annual growth speed is 194%, while B2C is 274%, its growth rate increased exponentially. Today’s world, in addition to e-business market, no other market is immune to such a high growth rate, and therefore its market prospect is considerable. Since e-business is becoming increasingly important, then the development of e-business in China is kind of how, and what Europe and the United States different? Chinese e-business began in 1997. If the U.S. e-business is “business-driven”, then the Chinese e-business is more of a “technology pull”, which is in the development model of China’s largest e-business e-business with the United States are different. In the United States, e-business e-business practice as early as the concept of the business needs of enterprise “push” the network and e-business technology, and contributed to the formation of the concept of e-business. When the Internet era, the United States have a more advanced and developed e-business infrastructure. In China, before the concept of e-business e-business application and development, “enlightening”are IBM and other IT vendors, network and e-business technologies need to constantly “pull” business needs of enterprises, thereby causing the application and development of Chinese e-business. Mainly the United States is the policy advantages of what the government tax, legal Ah, payment, international cooperation, intellectual property A, standard A, etc., make a lot of work. The second, computer technology, Internet technology, good platform, software, etc.the third, you can specifically check, the U.S. e-business company specific development process, from which you can get some knowledge. Article, the country’s overall economic situation, the development of living standards.the fifth, the credit system,the sixth, the overall quality of the residents In essence, e-business is not only a tool, or application of the method, but also a new business model, and any kind of business model are the technical conditions prevailing social and institutional conditions of the social division of labor. Necessarily a good business model for social division of labor, improve the efficiency of social production and conversion, thus contributing to social and economic development, but there are in the actual process of business model and the social division of labor between the very complex interaction, which makes any A successful business model of the design are difficult to fully in people’s minds, books, or to complete his study, only tests done by community organizations, through continuous testing, to be sure, improvement or negative, so that the new business model To evolution. We now see a variety of business models – such as department stores, chain stores, wholesale markets, strategic alliances are all the testing and evolution. Theory and practice have proven that when face and deal with the role of a complex that contains many interactive systems – e-business model is such a system – when the testing and evolution is the only way for development. Based on this understanding, we can understand why the Internet economy and e-business application and development often do not develop according to the way we expected, often in places we think we will succeed in the failure, but in our place with no hope to our surprise. We should be normal, like the understanding of human evolution to look like the mentality of the Internet economy and e-business such as setbacks and failures. This does not mean we can abandon reason, does not mean everything has become unpredictable and control. On the contrary, we are able to more accurate way to promote the development of e-business, we should abandon that only a mature business model for the rigid form of organization and business, and replaced by flexible forms of organization and business, will test And the evolution function “built”and a faster, more cost to find a successful e-business models.

If you are interested in our factory, welcome to share experience with me

my name: Jill Lee


2014 Autum Canton Fair is Coming! Zhejiang Kaixin Industrial & Trade Co.,Ltd -booth:D22


Canton Fair (China Import and Export Fair)

The China Import and Export Fair —- Canton Fair is the largest biannual China trade fairs, canton trade fairs, China trade shows of any kind and held in Guangzhou . Canton Fair is the most effective way to develop the business relationships you need to succeed in China. It’s no wonder that the Canton Trade Fair has already become a must see for all those looking for business success in China.

IMG_0008 会展1

Time: Every Spring (April 15 to May 5) and Autumn (October 15 – November 4).

Location: Pazhou Complex, NO.380 Yuejiang Zhong Lu, Guangzhou, China


Phase 1 (Oct. 15-19, 2014) Electronics & Household Electrical Appliances | Lighting Equipment | Energy Vehicles & Spare Parts | Machinery Hardware & Tools | Building Materials Chemical Products | International Pavilion

Phase 2 (Oct. 23-27, 2014) Consumer Goods Home Decorations Gifts Pet Products & Food

Phase 3 (Oct. 31-Nov. 4, 2014) Office Supplies, Cases & Bags, and Recreation Products | Food | Textiles & Garments | Shoes | Medicines, Medical Devices and Health Products | International Pavilion



For outdoor furniture manufacturer and trading company, This is the best oppotunity to show the world their own outdoor furnitures and new design. The time for this kind of supplier is Oct.23-27,2014. Fifty trading delegations, being composed of thousands of China’s best foreign trade corporations (enterprises), take part in the Fair. These include private enterprises, factories, scientific research institutions, wholly foreign-owned enterprises, and foreign trade companies. The 101st fair saw 314 different companies from 36 countries.


The fair leans to export trade, though import business is also done here. Apart from the above-mentioned, various types of business activities such as economic and technical cooperations and exchanges, commodity inspection, insurance, transportation, advertising, consultation, etc. are also carried out in flexible ways.



Canton Fair History:


Well-known as the Canton Fair, China Import and Export Fair has been held biannually in Guangzhou every spring and autumn since 1957. Regarded as the largest scale, the highest level, Canton Fair presents the most comprehensive exhibition covering the widest range of industries and sectors, as well as the richest products and commodities. Therefore, Canton Fair 2014 likes a golden business bridge, linking insightful overseas buyers with high-quality domestic exhibitors.



China Import and Export Fair (Pazhou) Complex, 380 Yuejiangzhong Road, Haizhu District, Guangzhou 510335 [3]

Liuhua Complex: The Complex was first put into use in 1974. It was discontinued as a venue for the Canton Fair, starting from the 115th Session (April 2014).

Gross exhibition space: 1,125,000 m².

Number of booths: Over 55,800 standard stands (105th Session).

Varieties: Over 150,000.

Business turnover: 262.3 Million USD (105th Session).

Number of trading countries and regions: 203 (103rd Session).

Number of visitors: 165,436 (105th Session).

Exhibitors: Over 22,000 (with 21,709 Chinese exhibitors, 395 international exhibitors, 105th Session).


Zhejiang Kaixin Industrial & Trade Co.,Ltd will attend this Autum “Phase 2 (Oct. 23-27, 2014) Consumer Goods Home Decorations Gifts Pet Products & Food” to show the world  outdoor furniture. Our booth number: D22.  Welcome to visit our booth!

Contact: Jill Lee

Zhejiang Kaixin Industrial & Trade Co.,Ltd- Factory Tour


Welcome to Zhejiang Kaixin Industrial & Trade Co.,Ltd

Our workshop:

The workshop is equipped with most modern and cutting edge technology equipments. PE Rattan furniture industry is considered as more of manual industry with greater proportion of man handwork and machinery. This is right to some extent, as man effort is required to produce PE rattan woven furniture. But there are some steps in the manufacturing that require mechanical work, like making aluminum frames and welding. The use of machinery in making wood furniture is the result of our constant research and development in the field. The use of aluminum frames has replaced bamboo and wood frames to give more durability, light weight and sturdier finish to the product. For this purpose we have outfitted our workshop facility with top notch machinery.

Our workers:

The facility holds hundreds of employees dedicatedly working to bring sense of style and comfort in your lives. Our employees work like a big happy family in the facility with good compensations. No one can deny the importance of skilled workers in the wood furniture and PE rattan furniture industry; this is why we give a tremendous importance to our valued staff. The well experienced staff is the greatest asset for our company and we know it is their efforts which are making us grow many folds. They select the finest materials to fulfill the demands of our customers. The companionship of these magical hands is what makes our products go to the very corner of the world.

Be our guests:

We welcome all our customers to pay us a visit at our factory to get a true feeling of our work ethics adherence, the quality craftsmanship at work and the rigorous quality testing in process. Please contact us before your visit to the facility for a more personalized and guided visit.


If you are interested in our outdoor furniture China.

please contact us:


Introduction- Zhejiang Kaixin Industrial & Trade Co.,Ltd


What do we believe in?

At Zhejiang Kaixin Industrial & Trade Co.,Ltd, we believe in customer satisfaction at maximum. Each and every product in our catalogue is designed to provide you with utmost comfort and ease of use. The use of finest material from all over the world gives our products a cutting edge in the competitive market of furniture making. We process every product under strict quality standards to make long-last products out of the fine raw material. The products are exposed to rigorous quality checks so that they are made into top quality standards to provide extreme comfort to our customers. Our dedicated and well informed customer support team provides guidance to any query of the customer in the quickest possible time. This is the reason we have earned a repute in our customers.


Raw Material we use:

PE Rattan is in use for so many years and has a strong repute for making of durable furniture articles. The exotic habitat of PE rattan makes its use in outdoor rattan/wicker furniture prefered over the use of wood. PE Rattan can withstand the harsh sunlight of the backyard and day to day drizzles and humid environment. PE Rattan furniture remains sturdier for years of rugged routine without any maintenance bills that you would have to bear on the wood furniture. Thus Chiyang makes sure you purchase a durable garden rattan furniture in an economical way. Our furniture remains durable for years of rugged use either you use it in your garden, on your patio or inside your home with kids playing on them.

PE Rattan like regular wood holds the color of your choice, while many customers like it in its natural wood color. Colored in sophisticated combination PE rattan are in use as office furniture. PE Rattan is easy to maintain.


Environmental adherence of KaiXin:

At KaiXin, we strictly believe in using 100% recyclable materials which are harmless to human body and adherence to nature environment protection so that the natural habitat of the plants are not disturbed. These ethical business practices contributes to the fine quality garden,patio,outdoor and indoor furniture products.


With powerful technical strength and sound inspection systems, we have made consistent innovation and accumulation and formed our unique producing art. Honesty and sincerity is the spirit of our company. Our pursue is to create first-class products in the world. We hold the hope to make splendid achievement together with friends from both home and abroad. Let us walk ahead hand in hand for the common interest in the future.


Please contact us:

contact person: Jill Lee


Zhejiang Kaixin Industrial & Trade Co.,Ltd-outdoor furniture factory in China



ZHEJIANG KAIXIN INDUSTRIAL & TRADE CO.,LTD are professional manufacturer and exporter of patio furniture,rattan furniture and wicker furniture in China.
Our stylish range of furniture fashioned from: PE rattan furniture,PE wicker furniture,patio furniture,outdoor garden furniture,sofa set,garden dining set,bar furniture,sun umbrella,swing chair,chaise lounge etc.

We have strength, resources, experience and a capable team to provide personalized garden & patio furniture products to meet our customers’ needs. We are one of the best suppliers who can design and manufacture different kinds of furniture according to clients’ request. Our patio & garden furniture are perfect and innovative in design, steady excellent in workmanship, firm and durable in usage, and are sell well all over the world. We are continuously developing new styles, and always sticking to international fashion trend, to meet the customers’ increasing demands on buying the outdoor patio & garden furniture.

Based on the concept of “consumers always come first”, we promise to offer excellent service constantly, and we’re making every effort in letting our customers trust us. We hope to establish a long-term and win-win long-term business relationship between us.

ZHEJIANG KAIXIN INDUSTRIAL & TRADE CO.,LTD is the maker of most stylish and classic furniture items for your outdoor and garden needs. By the increasing trend of using PE rattan and wicker for making of outdoor rattan furniture,Kaixin got its name marked as the manufacturer and supplier of the finest and durable PE rattan furniture maker in the world. With more and more customers across the globe, Kaixin is making a strong footing in making the PE rattan and wicker furniture for both indoor and outdoor use.

If you are interested in our factory, welcome to contact me.

contact person: Jill Lee



 kaixin furniture

Related Concepts OF High-Frequency Trading


3.3.1 Market Making The term market making refers to the strategy of quoting a simultaneous buy and sell limit order (quote) for a financial instrument in order to profit from the bid-ask spread. This can be either imposed by mandatory requirements set by market operators/regulators for entities covering that role (e.g. an official market maker such as the Designated Market Maker at the NYSE or Designated Sponsors at the Frankfurt Stock Exchange via the trading system XETRA), or voluntarily, i.e. without a determined obligation to quote. Several different terms are used to denote this kind of designated liquidity provision, e.g. market making with obligations, designated market making and registered market maker. Market makers frequently employ ―quote machines‖ which provide the respective electronic markets with their quotes. Quote machines are programs which generate, update and delete quotes according to a pre-set strategy. Due to the varying degree of sophistication among these programs, some of them employ techniques similar to HFTs, while others rely on the involvement of a human market maker. Since market making is a well known HFT strategy (Tradeworx 2010a), the following Figure 3 highlights the relationship between HFT and market making. Figure 3: Market making and HFT17 The figure shows the interferences denoted by numbers from one to three that span the activities of HFT in market-making18: (1) represents all other HFT strategies apart from market-making (for details see section 4.2), (2) represents HFT that applies market making strategies without acting as a designated liquidity provider and (3) represents HFT that applies market making and is registered as a designated liquidity provider, e.g. GETCO is a Designated Market Maker at NYSE (Bunge and Peterson 2010). 17 Areas without numbers refer to the part of market making and designated liquidity provision that is not undertaken by HFT. 18 As Figure 3 is not based on any numbers such as traded volume, the purpose is to illustrate the different possible combinations of market making and HFT and not to signify the proportions or dimensions of these combinations. Fragmentation makes HFT market making strategies more relevant as it enables market participants to quote on less active venues based on reference quotes/limits available, e.g., on the most liquid market for that instrument. Delineation of market making/quote machines to AT/HFT: quote machines originally supported market makers in fulfilling mandatory quotation obligations. Both mandatory and voluntary market making may apply HFT as a supporting technology. 3.3.2 Quantitative Portfolio Management (QPM)19 Quantitative portfolio managers use quantitative models to form investment portfolios. Chincarini and Kim define quantitative (equity) portfolio management in the following way: “The central, unifying element of quantitative equity portfolio management (QEPM) is the quantitative model that relates stock movements to other market data. Quantitative equity portfolio managers create such models to predict stock returns and volatility, and these predictions, in turn, form the basis for selecting stocks for the portfolio.” (Chincarini and Kim 2006)20 In contrast to HFTs, QPMs frequently hold positions for extended periods of time, whereas HFTs tend to liquidate their positions rapidly and usually end trading days without a significant position (―flat‖). Compared to AT and HFT, QPM has a higher degree of human intervention. QPMs use algorithms to generate trading decisions based on statistical calculations and data analysis techniques. While QPMs automate the process of portfolio selection and the generation of trading signals, a human portfolio manager will usually validate the results of his quantitative model before transferring it to a (human or automated) trader for execution. 19 Also known as Quantitative Investing. 20 An alternative definition of QPM is provided e.g. by Quoniam: “Quantitative portfolio management means the analysis and evaluation of situations relevant for the capital market using statistical methods.” Quoniam Asset Management GmbH (2010)

This is Jill, manager of  Zhejiang Kaixin Industrial & Trade Co.,Ltd
, we have manufacturing and trading high quality since 2008
If you are interested in me our our company ,please feel free to contact me.
Have a nice day!

our company website is :

our alibaba website is :

China garden furniture China garden furniture

High-Frequency Trading Definitions and Related Concepts


Why Algorithmic/High-Frequency Trading Need Clear Definition

In order to assess HFT concerning its relevance and impact on markets, first, a clear definition and delineation of the term HFT itself is required. This section aims at giving an overview of available academic and regulatory definitions and at excerpting a common notion that incorporates most of the existing perceptions. The derived definitions serve as the working definitions for the following sections. We follow the notion that HFT is a subset of AT as it is supported by e.g. Brogaard 2010. Therefore, AT will be treated first in subsection 3.2. Furthermore, subsection 3.3 lists related electronic trading concepts and technologies like market making, quantitative asset management and smart order routing in order to cover electronic trading concepts which share certain characteristics with AT/HFT

3.2 Delineating Algorithmic and High-Frequency Trading 3.2.1 Algorithmic Trading By now, the academic and general literature about AT is quite extensive. Thus, not surprisingly, the definitions of AT range from the very general ―Computerized trading controlled by algorithms‖ (Prix et al. 2007) to the rather specific: “In algorithmic trading (AT), computers directly interface with trading platforms, placing orders without immediate human intervention. The computers observe market data and possibly other information at very high frequency, and, based on a built-in algorithm, send back trading instructions, often within milliseconds. A variety of algorithms are used: for example, some look for arbitrage opportunities, including small discrepancies in the exchange rates between three currencies; some seek optimal execution of large orders at the minimum cost; and some seek to implement longer-term trading strategies in search of profits.” (Chaboud et al. 2009) Appendices II and III list academic and regulatory definitions on AT and HFT. The variety of formulations shows that there is no general agreement on a single definition. Rather than adding another definition to the list, we will try to extract the main characteristics of these definitions that are non-contradictive in academic literature
Throughout the literature, AT (and HFT as a subgroup) is viewed as a tool for professional traders that may observe market parameters or other information in real-time and automatically generates/carries out trading decisions without human intervention. It frequently applies DMA or SA technologies for order routing. Accordingly, we define AT as trading that reveals most but not necessarily all of the following characteristics in Table 1. As HFT is a subset of AT, these characteristics are also valid for HFT, which will be described in more detail in the next paragraph. Common Characteristics of AT and HFT 1) Pre-designed trading decisions 2) Used by professional traders 3) Observing market data in real-time 4) Automated order submission 5) Automated order management 6) Without human intervention 7) Use of direct market access Table 1: Common characteristics of AT and HFT However, there are characteristics specific to AT which are commonly not associated to HFT. Here, the focus is on the intelligent working of orders to minimize market impact relative to a pre-defined benchmark. In contrast to HFT, this (classical) part of AT may also relate to agent trading where customers hold securities over longer periods of time. Specific Characteristics of AT excluding HFT 1) Agent trading 2) Minimize market impact (for large orders) 3) Goal is to achieve a particular benchmark 4) Holding periods possibly days/week/months 5) Working an order through time and across markets Table 2: Specific characteristics of AT excluding HFT 3.2.2 High-frequency trading HFT is a newer phenomenon in the AT landscape and much less literature and definitions can be found. In the same manner as for AT, studying the definitions of HFT in academic literature was the basis for our working definition. Appendix III shows some typical definitions and descriptions for HFT in academic and regulatory documents. Authors typically13 specify that HFT strategies update their orders very quickly and have no over-night positions. The rapid submission of cancellations and deletions is necessary to realize small profits per trade. It is part of the business model to realize small profits in a large number of trades and hence, HFT focuses mainly on high liquid instruments. As a prerequisite, HFT needs to rely on high speed access to markets, i.e. low latencies or the usage of co-location/proximity services and individual data feeds. Table 3 shows basic features that are taken from the various definitions and are usually associated with HFT. Specific Characteristics of HFT 1) Very high number of orders 2) Rapid order cancellation 3) Proprietary trading14 4) Profit from buying and selling (as middleman) 5) No significant position at end of day (flat position) 6) Very short holding periods 7) Extracting very low margins per trade 8) Low latency requirement15 9) Use of co-location/proximity services and individual data feeds16 10) Focus on high liquid instruments Table 3: Specific characteristics of HFT Thus, similarly to AT we define HFT as trading that reveals most but not necessarily all of the above characteristics of Table 3 (obviously in combination with the characteristics listed in Table 1). Figure 2 sums up the characteristics of AT and HFT. In the lower left box, a list of typical properties is given that could be called ―classical‖ algorithmic trading that is specific for AT but is not associated with HFT. 13 Not necessarily all characteristics need to be fulfilled for every strategy that is regarded a HFT strategy. For example Tradeworx states that “some HFT strategies have no special speed requirements and do not even require collocation” (Tradeworx 2010a). 14 Proprietary traders utilize only their own capital for their trading activities (Harris 2003). 15 To trade at high frequencies, HFTs rely on sophisticated high-speed connections to the relevant marketplaces. 16 Co-location arrangements allow HFTs to place their trading engines close to the matching engines (servers) of a marketplace. This minimizes the time a signal needs to travel between the two engines (CFTC 2010). Individual data feeds can offer information faster than consolidated feeds, since it takes time to consolidate different feeds (SEC 2010a).

This is Jill, manager of Zhejiang Kaixin Industrial & Trade Co.,Ltd
, we have manufacturing and trading high quality since 2008

If you are interested in me our our company ,please feel free to contact me.

Have a nice day!

our company website is :

China garden furniture China outdoor furniture manufacturer